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The datasets are also available as weekly exports. NL EN. More from Jane Jackson. More about Intercultural communication Handbooks, manuals, etc Interculturele communicatie Language and culture Language and culture Handbooks, manuals, etc Taal en cultuur. Series: Routledge handbooks. Find a copy online Links to this item Dawsonera dawsonera.
Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item A comprehensive introduction to the multidisciplinary field of intercultural communication, drawing on the expertise of leading scholars from diverse backgrounds. Reviews Editorial reviews.
Publisher Synopsis 'The essays coalesce in a tour de force that embraces the multi-layered interactions involving language choice defined by psychological, economical, political, religious, and ethical factors.
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Textbooks: Intercultural Communication - Routledge
Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Language and culture -- Handbooks, manuals, etc. Dialogue interculturel. Enseignement des langues. Intercultural communication. Language and culture. Interculturele communicatie. Kulturkontakt Sprache Languages. User lists with this item 4 A. Linked Data More info about Linked Data. Martin, Thomas K. MacDonald and John P. To print, you will need to select one page at a time " ;.
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High-context and low-context cultures
A similar conceptualization of identity as negotiable and hence inherently communicative is reflected in Hecht et al. Its central argument is that identity is formed, expressed and modified through social interaction. To capture this, it proposes four interpenetrating layers of identity personal, enacted, relational and communal. Perhaps an even more dynamic account of identity is provided by Y. Specifically, Kim proposes a stress—adaptation—growth dynamic that explains how psychological transformation gradually evolves out of the stress—adaptation dialectic.
The product of this steady self-transformation is the emergence of an intercultural identity, a mindset that is both increasingly individualized and universalized. Not only does the theory envisage the intercultural identity as possibly transcending ascribed group boundaries, it also provides a developmental framework that has the advantage of explaining the emergent and reciprocal nature of identity and communication.
This paradigm highlights power inequities, the production of privileging ideologies and politicalization of identity, all of which are undertheorized in interpersonal approaches to identity in intercultural communication. Its engagement with the sociostructural context thus makes it compatible with the intergroup approach in social psychology reviewed above. Although they are informed by different disciplinary traditions and, to some extent, different metatheoretical traditions, social psychological, communication and applied linguistics scholars have wrestled with some common issues in their discussion of identity, language and culture.
We turn to a consideration of these themes, with the goals of making connections between relevant work across the disciplines and indicating some areas for future scholarly enquiry. The first theme relates to the notion that identities are multiple; most theorists eschew simplistic conceptualizations of identity in which people are categorically ascribed to externally defined social groups, a practice that was not uncommon in the early decades of research Leets et al. Moreover, intercultural encounters can be either or both intergroup or interpersonal in nature, such that, in the former, the relative status and power of the groups in contact play an important role in how the encounter unfolds and, in the latter, personal characteristics and interpersonal histories play a more prominent role cf.
Deaux and Martin In other, more relational perspectives, identity is also assumed to be multiple, in that each interaction involves the co- construction of identities anew, often through ongoing boundary marking and remarking as well as crossing boundaries to create new identities. Identities can also be multiple in the sense that one might claim multiple ethnolinguistic identities. Particularly in contexts where there is continued intercultural contact arguably including global English , it might be argued that few people come together with no knowledge of the target culture and no notion of how to communicate with its members.
Moreover, there are likely to be a myriad of ways in which people can integrate ethnolinguistic identities, such that hybridity itself could be construed in different ways, depending upon the context Dallaire and Denis The notion that people negotiate multiple identities is closely tied to the idea that identity is contingent upon context. Defining context, however, has proven challenging. One approach is to describe macro-social factors, such as the dimensions of demographic representation, institutional support and prestige subsumed in the notion of ethnolinguistic vitality Giles et al.
In a reciprocal manner, these attitudes and actions are the basis for solidifying or changing the macro-level, societal dynamics.
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A third theme is that identity in intercultural communication is problematic in at least three respects. The first aspect concerns the competence of interactants. These difficulties can contribute to poorer inter-cultural adjustment cf. Gudykunst To be an effective communicator, then, one must become more knowledgeable and skilled in the ways of the target culture and adopt a positive affective orientation towards that culture, two challenges that can be difficult to meet.
A second aspect concerns the power relations between interlocutors. From an intergroup perspective, a power imbalance between social groups contributes to feelings of threat, which in turn can lead to intergroup conflict. Likewise, much sociocultural research has focused on how power dynamics play into how people claim, contest and resist identities cf.
A third problem arises from the premise that that identity is negotiable, and hence variable. This emphasis on the dynamism of identity stands in contrast to identity models associated with the psychodynamic tradition of Erik Erikson and his followers Erikson ; Marcia , which highlight the importance of the self as a unifying process, and the idea that self-consistency and coherence are essential to psychological well-being.
Although this perspective has received extensive critique e. Rattansi and Phoenix , this dialectic between identity stability and dynamism merits greater consideration in intercultural communication research. Spreckels and Kotthoff Social psychological research on language use has generally been directed at understanding how these choices affect impression formation and other psychological and behavioural reactions, rather than on particular linguistic and nonverbal characteristics Brabant et al. From this perspective, language tends to be broadly defined, for instance in terms of accent, dialect, language, or in terms of more or less accommodative or non-accommodative styles.
In order to demonstrate that social psychological processes are associated with variations in communicative competence, social psychologists have used more concrete measures of language competence. These include course grades, standardized test scores, cloze tests and tests designed specifically for a particular study, as well as self-assessments of competence, usually in terms of reading, writing, speaking and understanding although these self-evaluations might be better interpreted as indices of self-confidence in using the target language rather than indices of competence; see MacIntyre et al.
An inadvertent consequence of this correlational approach, however, is that it tends to frame language as a cognitive process relatively independent of social processes.
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In communication research, language seems at best tangential unless it is assumed that language constitutes part of the process of message encoding and decoding that occurs during intercultural interaction. There is a continued interest in how nonverbal and verbal behaviour differs across cultures, concerning mainly what transpires in the immediate context of meaning or message transaction e. Kim ; Ting-Toomey Little explicit attention, however, has been paid to how language and identity are conceptualized in relation to each other and the extent to which language can be said to constitute an important part of identity but see Croucher ; Matsunaga et al.
This conspicuous omission is perhaps due in part to the fact that many intercultural communication theories were generated to explain intercultural communication within the US, where the use of one single, dominant language is assumed, and in part to the emphasis on the non-linguistic aspects of culture and communication during its formative years Chapter 1 , this volume. Not surprisingly, in applied linguistics, language is at the core of inquiries into identity.
In Vygotskyan cultural—historical theory concerning mediated mental development, language is viewed in terms of intra- or interpersonal speech and conceptual meaning of words that mediates thinking, rather than as linguistic forms or referential meaning Lantolf and Thorne Conceptual metaphors that are culturally influenced also carry importance in this framework.
They often hope to disclose power relations that may be stated or unstated but assumed in the discourse. Thus, this perspective places greater emphasis on the social rather than the cognitive aspect of language. Any examination of the relation between language and identity in intercultural interactions requires a definition of culture to clarify what it is if anything that sets such interactions apart from intracultural interactions. The notion of culture, however, has received varied elaboration across the three disciplines. This is perhaps because the historically established patterns of beliefs, norms and social practices more or less shared by members within an ethnolinguistic group are not assumed to systematically influence the process of intergroup communication; the intergroup dynamics of categorization, identification and comparison are considered to be sufficient to explain patterns of language learning and use.
Although it is conceivable that cultural patterns might moderate intergroup processes e. Brewer and Yuki , to date, little research has addressed this kind of intersection between culture and communication within the context of intercultural communication. The notion of culture has been more extensively articulated by communication scholars, often with reference to definitions forwarded by researchers interested in cross-cultural comparisons. Because they are tendencies, this frame of reference varies among members of a cultural group and may shift within any individual depending upon the context.
Moreover, such a perspective does not adequately take into account cultural complexity in the era of globalization e. Dervin and Ljalikova ; Hannerz These concerns suggest that we reframe thinking of cultures in isolation and move from looking at mean tendencies that distinguish one culture from another to tackling the contact zone of living with and committing to multiple cultures. Sociocultural applied linguists regard culture as the shared activity or practice of a community. From a Vygotskyan cultural—historical perspective, social relationships and culturally created artefacts are central to human development.
Cultural contexts are, therefore, seen as vital in determining the nature of that development because different cultures create different artefacts, both physical and symbolic, which individuals use to mediate learning. In a move further away from essentialized notions of culture, some poststructuralist critical researchers focus on linguistic and discursive construction of cultural categories and how power is implicated in this process.
Like most areas of the social sciences, scholars studying language and identity in intercultural interactions have had to grapple with the different, possibly incommensurate, perspectives on ontology and epistemology that characterize positivism and constructivism. These decades-old discussions have highlighted problems with older, established points of view and offered new avenues for theory and research. At the same time, critical reflection and self-reflection on newer perspectives have revealed limitations in their formulations cf.
In response to these debates, some have argued that we need a third way that can resolve the discrepancies between paradigms e.
Discussions of the nature of reality and how we can understand it inevitably lead to discussions of appropriate methodology. Although there has been a marked increase in qualitative research, across the disciplines, intercultural communication research has tended to rely on quantitative data, collected primarily through survey methods and, less often, experimental methods. These include questionnaires designed to tap psychological constructs and self-reports of behaviour in intercultural encounters, responses to hypothetical scenarios and reactions to written or recorded speech samples.
It is perhaps a curious fact, given that language and communication are action-oriented processes, that much of the research involves self-reports acquired through survey methods cf. It is thus incumbent upon researchers to supplement self-reports with observations of intercultural encounters as they happen, whether in the laboratory or in the field. Regardless of whether one chooses to gather and analyse quantitative or qualitative information, research design needs to better address some common assumptions about language, identity and intercultural communication.
First, although few scholars across the three disciplines construe identity, communication or cultural processes as static and unchangeable, much research to date gives just such an impression because it is carried out at only one point in time.
Moreover, developments in structural equation modelling usually using quantitative, self-report data have led researchers to emphasize unidirectional, causal relations between variables rather than dynamic, reciprocal interactions between them. Increasingly, researchers are emphasizing the need to employ longitudinal research designs that can better model the contextual and temporal dynamics of identity and intercultural communication, and better capture the reciprocal relations within and between systems. Recent advances in developmental science include quantitative analytical techniques, such as multilevel modelling and latent growth curve analysis, which offer greater power to examine identity and language as dynamic, contextualized and interrelated systems.
Second, in order to explain the role of the social context in language, identity and inter-cultural communication, we should not shy away from research that adopts a comparative perspective. To date, much intercultural communication research has been comparative primarily in the sense that it contrasts the characteristics and practices of two cultures to see where there is the potential for miscommunication. This kind of comparison runs the risk of ethnocentric interpretations of cultural differences that favour privileged positions cf. Moon For instance, interactions between members of groups that have a long history of interaction e.
Anglophones and Francophones in Canada are likely to involve different dynamics than intercultural interactions between members of groups with shorter histories English Canadian sojourners in France. Likewise, the acquisition of a new language is likely to involve different dynamics for learners who have little opportunity for face-to-face contact with the language community outside the classroom than for those who regularly interact with speakers of the target language.
This kind of comparative analysis offers more than an extensive cataloguing of intercultural interactions.